People who have Autism report that their symptoms have decreased after taking an Nrf2 activator.  Following are testimonials and current research articles that report new information about the cause of Autism and how Nrf2 activators can be effective in treating it at the cellular level where it starts.

Nov. 20, 2020 issue of Frontiers in Psychiatry.  Researchers in Changsha, China reviewed 30 articles on how 5 different Nrf2 activators help autism, and said that “Nrf2 activators have a potentially beneficial role in improving autism-like behaviors and abnormal molecular alterations through oxidant stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.”  Nrf2 activators in dietary phytochemicals (chemicals found in plants such as fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and other plants) are considered to be relatively safer and effective for Autism Spectrum Disorder treatment.  (see, 33329102).
Andrea Boyd:  "I'm the mother of a four and a half year old who is diagnosed with high functioning Autism since he was two years old. So for the last two and a half years we've been in and out of different therapies that have been trying to get him past certain hurdles that he has been trying to get over. A couple of those hurdles are things like speech and social skills, learning how to play with others, learning how to ask for things that he wants or needs, and just very simple day to day things that normal people do to live. The therapies in the past have worked. We've done speech therapy, we've done a lot of behavioral therapy. We're still doing all those things. With the one thing that I've noticed though in the last couple of months or so he's really skyrocketed in terms of how he has progressed from the way he used to be to how he is now, more like a normal four and a half year old child would be.   The one thing that I've seen that is different is that we have been having him on the Protandim for the last eight weeks. One of the biggest things that I am really appreciative about is that I've noticed that his level of progression over the last eight weeks has been far greater than in any 8 week period that I can remember. Just putting him on that Protandim over the last couple of months has really made a huge impact on him. I've seen him want to initiate play with other kids. I've seen him come up to me and ask questions, and ask for things that he wants and he is taliking in complete sentences when he has never done that before. It's just amazing to me because I have never seen a progression that fast in him. It's been absolutely amazing for him. I'm so thankful the doctor gave him the Protandim, and we're life long addicts now."   (

Evan Riggle:  Evan has had autism his whole life, and now he is a teenager and is bigger, stronger, and more difficult for his mother to handle.  His mom tried blood transfusions to boost his immune system, but he is far more receptive to glutathione treatments.  It is explained in this Channel 11 News story from Louisville that boosting his own natural glutathione production in his body reduces oxidative stress in his body, causing him to be less combative, more calm, and generally more cooperative.  His success prompted doctors to give glutathione to 3 other kids, two of them have also made remarkable progress.  One 8 year-old reportedly dressed himself for the first time in his life.  Studies are underway with 50 other autistic kids.


Colleen Pontius:  "We have a handicap daughter who's 30 years old, who mentally is somewhere between 3 and 4 years old. She doesn't read. She doesn't write. She has her own little personality. She has some behavior concerns at times, but Jenny is one that is definitely her own person. Jenny, to communicate with us, would say things like noun verb and adverb. 'Jenny go too, Jenny's happy, Jenny wants a hamburger, Jenny needs this.' And she would always refer to herself in the third person.   When we started taking ASEA in the Spring, it wasn't until the middle of the summer when we had seen so much good done for him that I thought, 'I wonder what this could do for her'. So I started giving Jenny 2 oz in the morning and that's all I gave her was just the 2 oz in the morning.   Within about a month, I started noticing that she was asking more questions... that she was saying more words... that she seemed to be thinking a little bit clearer about things.   I took Jenny to an open house in August. When we came out of the open house and got into the car, she looked at me and she said, 'Mom, I enjoyed that.' A full sentence, referring to herself as 'I' and saying the word 'enjoyed'. We've been watching Jenny quite closely since then. She's using words like 'possibly' or 'probably'. And instead of being upset when things weren't going her way, she's asking for an alternative. 'If I can't do it today, can I do it tomorrow? Is that something we could plan for next week?' Her sentence structure has increased dramatically. Her attention span has increased dramatically. And her ability to understand what we're telling her has increased dramatically.   It has been just a short period of time for Jenny. We do appreciate ASEA. I do appreciate the fact that she is doing so well with this. And we will continue to give this to her."  (

2-19-18. Dr. Anwar reported in Molecular Autism that children with autism have increased oxidation damage markers. This and other chemical markers may be accurate in determining specificity for autism. (Note: It is known that oxidation damage can be reduced by Nrf-2 activators). (, 29479405).  

2-12-18. Dr. Delhey reported in Frontiers in Neuroscience that there is evidence that Autism is associated with abnormalities in metabolic pathways, such as the glutathione pathway. The autistic participants of this study all had poor glutathione metabolism and high oxidative stress. Taking a combination of vitamin B12 and a low dose of Folinic Acid had a significant effect on glutathione metabolism, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH-4) by itself significantly reduced chronic oxidative stress. (Note: Nrf-2 activators increase glutathione and reduce oxidative stress). (, 29483858).

10-18-17, Redox Biology. Dr. Frandsen reports that Autism and other neurological disorders are often started or exacerbated by accumulation of methylglyoxal in the body, and antioxidants function to protect the nervous system from it. Also, flavonoids (plant components) are effective in reducing levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in neural cells, which are at the core of the disease. (, 29080525).

10-10-17, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. Dr. Sarroulihe reported that Autism and other neurological problems (migraines, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, depressive disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) all share inflammation as a common cause. Anti-inflammatory therapy is the target for new treatments for Autism and other problems. (, 29066951).

9-4-17, Journal of Neuroinflammation. Dr Prata and other researchers report that in recent years, evidence supporting a link between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been mounting. At the core of autism spectrum disorders is inflammation and oxidative stress. (, 28870209).


Ann Nutr Metab. 2016 Aug 6;69(1):54-55. [Epub ahead of print]
Gluten Intolerance and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Is Nitric Oxide the Common Biomarker Linking These Conditions?

Cruchet et al. attempt to tease out the myths and facts surrounding the growing popularity of certain dietary approaches in the management of neurodevelopmental disorders, like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The authors identify a particular exclusionary-type approach that seeks to eliminate dietary gluten. Although the relationship between celiac disease (CD) and ADHD/ASD is not well established, a repeated clinical feature noted in CD is the elevated levels of nitric oxide in serum and urine. Elevated oxidative stress has also been observed in neurodevelopmental conditions, and the author of this correspondence has been the first to propose that chronic, environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide may contribute to these oxidative stress profiles through neural cholinergic perturbation. Therefore, the purpose of this correspondence is to highlight this biochemical connection between these conditions so as to identify the clinical populations who may realize the greatest benefit of these dietary approaches, while minimizing any potential risk of nutrient deficiencies.

PMID: 27498299 

[INTERPRETATION:  Air pollutant nitrous oxide causes elevated levels of nitrous oxide in the body, which perturbs the nerve cells, which causes oxidative stress on cells, which causes ADHD and AUTISM.]  We may not be able to do anything ourselves about the air pollution, but there are products proven to significantly reduce oxidative stress, including Protandim and ASEA.


Nutrients. 2016 Jun 7;8(6). pii: E337. doi: 10.3390/nu8060337.

Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

PMID:  27338456

 [INTERPRETATION:  Autistic kids who where given folic acid (a B-vitamin found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, poultry, eggs, & grains) produced more of the body's own antioxidant glutathione, which reduced their oxidative stress, and they became more social, and had improved test scores in cognition, expressive language, receptive language, lovingness toward others, and general communication skills, all in 3 months of treatment.]


Int J Dev Neurosci. 2016 Jun;51:12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2016.04.004. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Serum levels of SOD and risk of autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.


Autism is a severe developmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. This study examined the clinical significance of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, a marker of oxidative stress, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically-developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years.


Ninety-six children diagnosed with ASD and 96 sex and age matched typically-developing children were assessed for serum levels of SOD at admission. S0D were assayed by colorimetry, and severity of ASD was evaluated with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) Score. The influence of serum SOD levels on ASD was performed by conditional logistic regression analysis, which allows adjustment for confounding factors.


The median serum SOD levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in children with ASD as compared to typically-developing children [146 (IQR: 133-165) U/ml and 180 (168-199) U/ml, respectively]. Levels of SOD increased with decreasing severity of ASD as defined by the CARS score (r=-0.432, P<0.0001). After adjusting for all other possible covariates, SOD remained can be seen as an independent indicator of ASD with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.955 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.942-0.969; P<0.001). Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum level of SOD as an indicator for auxiliary diagnosis of ASD was projected to be 160U/ml, which yielded a sensitivity of 84.7% and a specificity of 71.4%, with the area under the curve at 0.811 (95%CI, 0.747-0.874).


Our data suggests that the decreased serum SOD levels could be implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of autism in Chinese children and can be used as an independent risk indicator of ASD.

[INTERPRETATION:  the body's naturally-produced antioxidant SOD is lower in kids who have autism.  By bringing the levels of SOD up past a level of 160, kids may be in the "normal" range.]


Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):89-95. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000134.

Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders.

Gu F1, Chauhan V, Chauhan A.

Author information Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Glutathione (GSH) is a major endogenous antioxidant. Several studies have implicated GSH redox imbalance in brain disorders. Here, we summarize current evidence on how GSH depletion and GSH-related enzyme deficit are involved in the pathology of brain disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.


Many studies with animal models of various brain disorders and/or with clinical samples from humans with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders have demonstrated altered levels of GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), decreased ratio of GSH/GSSG, and/or impaired expressions or activities of GSH-related enzymes in the blood or brain of these individuals. GSH depletion can lead to abnormalities in methylation metabolism and mitochondrial function. A few studies showed that a GSH deficit occurs prior to neuropathological abnormalities in these diseases. The potential therapeutic agents for brain disorders include N-acetylcysteine, liposomes encapsulated with GSH, and whey protein supplement, which can increase the GSH levels in the brain and alleviate oxidative stress-associated damage and may improve the behavior of individuals with brain diseases.


GSH plays an important role during the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. GSH redox imbalance may be a primary cause of these brain disorders and may be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of these diseases. N-acetylcysteine and other agents that can increase the concentration of GSH in the brain are promising approaches for the treatment of these brain disorders.

PMID:  25405315  [PubMed - in process]

[INTERPRETATION:  It is suspected that autism is caused by low levels of glutathione (a body-produced antioxidant), and the new treatment is to take things that increase glutathione.]


Brain Connect. 2015 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Shared Brain Connectivity Issues, Symptoms, and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome.

Kern JK1, Geier D, King P, Sykes L, Mehta J, Geier M.

Author information

The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS), has increased over the past two decades. Currently, about 1 in 6 children in the United States is diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Evidence suggests that ASD, ADHD, and TS have similar neuropathology, which includes long-range under-connectivity and short-range over-connectivity. They also share similar symptomatology, with considerable overlap in their core and associated symptoms and a frequent overlap in their comorbid conditions. Consequently, it is apparent that ASD, ADHD, and TS diagnoses belong to a broader spectrum of neurodevelopmental illness. Biologically, long-range under-connectivity and short-range over-connectivity are plausibly related to neuronal insult (e.g., neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, sustained microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines, toxic exposure, oxidative stress, etc.). Therefore, these disorders may a share a similar etiology. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine the evidence that ASD, ADHD, and TS belong to a broader spectrum of neurodevelopmental illness, an abnormal connectivity spectrum disorder (ACSD), which results from neural long-range under-connectivity and short-range over-connectivity. The review also discusses the possible reasons for these neuropathological connectivity findings. In addition, this review examines the role and issue of axonal injury and regeneration in order to better understand the neuropathophysiological interplay between short- and long-range axons in connectivity issues.

PMID:  25602622  [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[INTERPRETATION:  Autism is caused by nervous system problems like inflammation, toxins, and oxidative stress (cell damage by free radicals).  So are some other problems like ADD and Tourette’s.]

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